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This study was undertaken to assess the farming system, breeding practices, marketing and production constraints of Arab goats for developing alternative breeding strategies for genetic improvement and conservation in Kurmuk and Assosa districts, western Ethiopia. Data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews of 280 respondents. The mixed crop-livestock production system was the dominant farming system. Goats were kept as a primary source of cash income and capital saving. Breeding was uncontrolled and bucks were castrated late at the age of 2.07 years. The primary markets outlet in the study districts were local traders, wholesale, traders, and buying agents. Most of the goats produced in Assosa district were consumed in the local markets and the only outlet from the Kurmuk market was through the Ethio-Sudanese border. The supply of goats to Addis Ababa through the market chain was negligible because of long distances and poor infrastructure. The major goat production constraints were disease, feed, and water shortage. To meet the current growing demand of small ruminant meat markets, improving feed, feeding management, health, and marketing efficiency should be given priority in the improvement program of the breed. Moreover, constraint identified in the present study can be used as an input for setting up sustainable community-based breeding program (cooperative village-level breeding scheme) in the future.
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