East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas <p>The East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (EAJVAS) publish original scientific papers and technological information on aspects of veterinary and animal sciences to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers from anywhere else in the world. </p> Haramaya University en-US East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 2616-8804 Conservation, Processing and Utilization Practices of Cereal Straw as Basal Feed for Dairy Cattle in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/389 <p>The study was carried out to assess the current status of cereal straw management practices, challenges and opportunities to enhance its use as feed resource to dairy cattle across the crop production corridors in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Data were collected from 180 smallholder dairy farmers (85.6% male and 14.4% female-headed households) using a structured questionnaire, key informant discussion and personal observations. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA procedure of the Statistical Analysis System was used to estimate and compare qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. The average cattle herd size per household in the study areas was 14 Tropical Livestock Units (TLU), and the number of total cows and lactating cows owned per household was 4.5 heads and 2.9 heads, respectively with a higher proportion of crossbreds than local cows. <em>Tef</em>, barley, wheat and oat straws were the principal residues conserved and used to feed dairy cattle by all the farmers across the study areas. On average, about 7.4t DM of cereal crop residues were produced per household. Overall, cereal residues contribute to the level of 75% of the basal feed proportion in the late dry season which gradually declines to a lower level in the middle of the wet season. The entire respondents practice collection and storage of cereal residues out of which about 83.5% use under shelter shade loose storage system. Although the farmers use these residues for different purposes, more than 68% of the respondents reported as they use them only for feeding purposes. Moistening (61.8%) with water and salt, mixing (34.4%) with some kind of market available concentrates, molasses and local beverage residues (<em>atella</em>) and treatment (3.8%) with urea were the common processing methods used before feeding. Overall, about 91.1% of the sampled respondents reported as they encounter crop residue loss and the majority (&gt;75%) of the loss occurs during utilization. The cluster-based farming system underway in the area created an opportunity for crop expansion with better straw yield. However, lack of processing, appropriate utilization and absence of regular training supported by practical demonstration were listed as important challenges in their descending order. Commonly, <em>tef</em>, wheat and barley straws were available in the market throughout the year via retailers. Straws are abundantly available at fair price within a few months from the time of harvest but gradually get scarce and expensive towards the wet season across the districts. From the study it was concluded that the conservation, processing and utilization practices of cereal straw as basal feed source for dairy cattle were not fully exploited. Based on the conclusion it was recommended that farmers should be better exposed to efficient crop residue conservation, treatment and utilization techniques. Further studies should be made to adopt straw densification methods utilized and appreciated in some other tropical countries.</p> Kasa Biratu Mengistu Urge Getu Kitaw Fekede Feyissa Adegbola Adesogan Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 5 1 1 14 10.20372/eajvas.v5i1.389 Genetic Analysis of Lifetime Traits of Crossbred Dairy Cattle in the Central Highland of Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/390 <p>Data collected from 1974 to 2015(42 years) on crossbred dairy cows maintained at Holetta Agricultural Research Centre were used to estimate genetic parameters for lifetime traits. These traits were total life, herd life, productive life, lifetime milk yield, lifetime calf crop, lifetime milk yield per total life (LTMYTL), lifetime milk yield per productive life (LTMYPL), and lifetime milk yield per herd life (LTMYHL). The VCE (6.0.2) and PEST (4.2.5) software were employed for genetic parameter estimations. The heritability estimates for lifetime traits observed in the present study were medium to high ranging from 0.19±0.04 to 0.62±0.06. The estimates of heritability for total life, productive life, herd life, lifetime milk yield, LTMYTL, LTMYPL, LTMYHL and lifetime calf crop were 0.25 ±0.05, 0.20±0.04, 0.19±0.04, 0.21±0.04, 0.31±0.05,0.31±0.06, 0.27±0.07 and 0.62±0.06, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between traits vary in magnitude ranging from 0.02 between lifetime calf crop and LTMYPL to 0.94 between LTMYTL and lifetime milk yield. Similarly, the phenotypic correlation estimates between the traits also vary from lower to high, ranging from 0.02 between lifetime calf crop and LTMYHL to 0.94 between herd life and total life. It can be noted from estimated heritability values that including the lifetime trait in the selection program can bring genetic progress to the herd. The genetic and phenotypic correlations among the total life, productive life, herd life, and lifetime milk yield were high and imply that selection on total life and lifetime milk yield would bring positive improvement on most of the lifetime traits. From the study it was concluded that including the lifetime trait in the selection program can bring genetic progress in this herd through choosing the best young sire. Based on the conclusion it was recommended that TL and LTMY need to be considered as important trait in cross breed dairy selection program.</p> Sileshi Tefera Kefelegn Kebede Direba Hunde Million Tadesse Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 5 1 15 22 10.20372/eajvas.v5i1.390 Effects of Substituting Maize with Ground Cassava Tuber on Egg Production and Quality of White Leghorn Hens https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/441 <p>A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of substituting maize with ground cassava tuber on performances of white leghorn hens. One hundred ninety-five 32 weeks old white leghorn chickens were used to determine egg production, quality and economics performance of layers fed ration containing peeled and sundried cassava tuber meal (PSCTM) at level of 0 (T1, control), 25 (T2), 50 (T3), 75 (T4) and 100% (T5) by replacing maize grain in the control ration. Birds were randomly distributed to five dietary treatments and replicated thrice each with 13 hens and two cocks. The experiment was conducted for 90 consecutive days. Hens were individually weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Data on dry matter intake (DMI), hen day egg production (HDEP), egg mass and egg weight were recorded daily, whereas egg quality parameters were determined weekly. The result of the study revealed that dry matter intake of layers (80.7, 87.5, 80.8, 83.4 and 83.0) was not significantly different (P &gt; 0.05) among the treatments. Average daily body weight gain was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) for T2 (0.27 gm/bird) compared to the other treatment groups. Feed conversion ratio, percentage hen- day egg production (and egg mass were higher in T3. There was no difference (P&gt;0.05) among treatments on egg quality parameters except yolk color which was higher for T5. Based on the results of this study, T3(50%) replacement of maize by cassava tuber meal appeared to be a diet of good feeding value, more economical or reasonably cheaper ration which can be used as energy supplement in formulation of layers ration without adverse effects on egg laying performance of white leghorn layers.</p> Mihret Aregay Mengistu Urge Getachew Animut Meseret Girma Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 5 1 23 30 10.20372/eajvas.v5i1.441 Effects of Heat-Treated Bovine Blood Meal on Growth Performances and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/443 <p>A total of 180 one-day-old unsexed Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four experimental diets and three replications per treatment, with each pen with 15 chicks per replicate arranged in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of partial substitution of soybean meal with blood meal on performances and carcass characteristics. The treatments were: T1 (0% blood meal), T2 (9% blood meal), T3 (18% blood meal), and T4 (27% blood meal). The rations were prepared in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner and the experiment was lasted for 49 days. Dry matter (DM) intake was not significant (P&gt;0.05) between T2 and control (T1) during the starter, finisher, and entire period. But DM intake was significant (P&lt;0.05) in T2 compared to T3 and T4 during the starter, finisher, and entire period. There was a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in body weight (BW) gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in birds fed diet T2 as compared to T1, T3, and T4 during the finisher phase. In addition, the finding showed that significant (P&lt;0.05) drumstick, thigh, and abdominal fat weight were recorded in T2 compared to the control (T1), T3, and T4. However, there was no significant difference (P&gt;0.05) in breast weight, wing weight, and dressing weight between the control and T2. Therefore, dried bovine blood meal can be incorporated at a 9% level as a soybean replacement without affecting the chickens' performance.</p> Mesele Kebede Yonatan Kasu Abera Anja Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 5 1 31 38 10.20372/eajvas.v5i1.443 Effects of Locally Extracted Phytase on Blood Profiles, Phosphorus in Excreta and Economic Benefits of Supplementation in the White Leghorn Chickens https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/444 <p>A study was conducted to evaluate the performances of White Leghorn chicken that fed diets with or without phytase supplementation. The experiment was conducted at a poultry farm of Haramaya University at a distance of 510 km east of Addis Ababa. At 25 weeks of age, 168 White Leghorn hens were randomly divided into four experimental feeds (treatments). Phytase was extracted from germinated rye grains. The hens were fed treatment diets containing phytase at the level of 0 (T<sub>1</sub>), 300 (T<sub>2</sub>), 600 (T<sub>3</sub>), and 1200 (T<sub>4</sub>) FTU/kg. Each pen contained 12 hens and 2 cocks per replicate in complete randomized design (CRD) and the feeding experiment lasted for 90 days. There were no significant (p&gt;0.05) differences in total serum, albumin, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein of hens that were fed diets contained phytase at different levels and hens fed the control diet. However, the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDLP) in hens at the different treatments showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) at T3 and T4 than other treatment groups. Among the treatments, maximum net income was recorded from the diet contained phytase at 1200 FTU/kg (T<sub>4</sub>), followed by chickens raised at T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>1</sub>. Phytase supplementation of a diet has also a significant reduction on Ca and P levels in the hen excreta. Based on the results of this study, supplementation of hen’s diet with phytase has improved high density lipoprotein of serum, net income and bioavailability of Ca and P to the body of layers of White Leghorn without affecting the hematology of layers.</p> Mengistu Lemma Negassi Ameha Meseret Girma Ali Beker Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 5 1 39 46 10.20372/eajvas.v5i1.444