East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas <p>The East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (EAJVAS) publish original scientific papers and technological information on aspects of veterinary and animal sciences to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers from anywhere else in the world. </p> en-US editor@eajvas.haramayajournals.org (Editorial Team) abraha.ashebr@yahoo.com (Dr. Bruk Abraha (Editorial Manager)) Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Abeshige District of Gurage Zone, South Western Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/433 <p>A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to May 2015 in Abeshige district of Gurage Zone in Southwestern Ethiopia with the objectives of estimating the prevalence and identifying the species of trypanosomes. A total of 498 blood samples were collected and tested using conventional thin smear and buffy coat techniques. The result revealed an overall prevalence rate of 12.4% trypanosomosis. There were no significant difference in prevalence between animals of different location, age, sex and breed (p&gt;0.05). The mean PCV of parasitemic animals (24.5%) was significantly lower than that of aparasitemic animals (29%) (p&lt;0.05). The most commonly encountered trypanosome species among parasitemic cattle was <em>T. congolense</em> (67.7%) followed by <em>T. vivax</em> (29%) and mixed (<em>T. congolense</em> and <em>T. vivax</em>) (2.3%) infections. In conclusion, the result indicated trypanosomosis to be a major livestock production challenge in the study area that warrant control strategies.</p> Fethu Lemma, Sisay Alemu, Sisay Haile Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/433 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus Uberis in Lactating Cows of Haramaya University Dairy Farm https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/434 <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out in 40 lactating dairy cows of Haramaya University dairy farm from November 2014 to April 2015 to isolate <em>Streptococcus uberis</em> and assess risk factors. A checklist, farm inspection, and clinical examination of cattle were employed to collect data before laboratory examination of milk samples. Lactating animals were examined for the presence of clinical signs of mastitis. Physical examination of milk samples and California Mastitis Test (CMT) were conducted. Milk samples collected from clinically mastitic cows and CMT positive samples were subjected to microbiological examinations. Isolation and identification of <em>Streptococcus uberis</em> were carried out according to standard microbiological procedure. From 40 cows udders examined, 17 (42.5%) and 3 (7.5%) were sub-clinically and clinically affected, respectively. <em>Streptococcus uberis</em> was isolated from 2 (5%) of these cows. Out of 160 quarters examined, 11 (6.88%), 20 (12.5%) and 50 (31.25%) of the quarters were blind, clinically mastitic and sub-clinically mastitic, respectively.<br><em>Streptococcus uberis</em> was isolated from hind quarters of two sub-clinically mastitic dairy cattle. In conclusion, the present study revealed low isolation rate, however, it’s potential to spread and negative impact on quality milk production should not be neglected. Therefore, emphasis should be given to the control of mastitis due to this pathogen by improving hygienic and sanitation management measures.</p> Agari Feyisa, Anwar Hassen, Nateneal Tamerat, Ashebr Abraha Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/434 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Detection of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Small Ruminants in Haramaya University Farms https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/435 <p>The present study evaluated the status of anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites of small ruminants. The study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Haramaya University sheep and goat farms. A fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed in naturally infected sheep and goats. A total of 30 black head Ogaden sheep and 30 Hararghie highland goats of age form 6-18 months not treated in the previous 8 weeks and with a fecal egg counts (FECs) greater than 150 eggs per gram of faeces were selected for the test. Both sheep and goats were grouped into two treatments and one control group (albendazole, ivermectin, and the control). In sheep, the percentage reductions in FECs and the 95% (lower and upper) confidence limit (CL) for albendazole was 82% (95%, CL 60-92), and for ivermectin 68% (95%, CL 0-90). In goats, the percentage reductions in FECs for albendazole was 63% (95%, CL 28-81), and for ivermectin 41% (95%, CL 0-72). The result show that albendazole and ivermectin resistance was detected in nematode parasites of sheep and goats. To overcome the problem, the farm should use anthelmintics only when necessary, employ rotation of anthelmintic every two or three years, use the correct dose of anthelmintics, reduce dependence on anthelmintics and use other management options such as rotational grazing, and adopt strategies to preserve susceptible worms.</p> Walkite Furgasa, Negesse Mekonnen, Anwar Hassen Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/435 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Protective Efficacy of Lepidium sativum, Capsicum frutescens and their Mixtures against Experimentally Induced Eimeria tenella Infection in Broiler Chickens https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/436 <p>This study was aimed at evaluating the anticoccidial efficacy of <em>Lepidium sativum </em>(Garden cress (GC)), <em>Capsicum frutescens</em> (Hot red pepper (Hrp)) and their mixtures powder in``` broiler chickens. A total of 144 Cobb-500 broiler chickens were randomly allocated into six<br>treatment groups with three replications. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Rations were fortified with 0.75% GC, 0.75% Hrp, 0.38% GC+0.38% Hrp and 0.0125% amprolium in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively and fed to the chicks starting on day two of age. Ration fed to chicks in group 1 and 2 were without any additives. Chicks in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were infected with 10<sup>5</sup> sporulated <em>Eimeria tenella</em> oocyst per chick at the age of 15 days. Animal performance, oocysts output, cecal lesion score, carcass and serum parameters were recorded during the experiment. Uninfected-unfortified and amprolium ration groups in the starter period and group that received ration fortified with a mixture of GC+Hrp and uninfected-unfortified ration in the finisher phase resulted in a higher body weight gain (BWG). Across the entire experimental period, BWG was higher in the uninfected-unfortified ration group. The average feed intake in<br>the entire period was higher in uninfected-unfortified ration, GC and amprolium groups. Broiler chicks fed a diet fortified with GC 0.75% or amprolium (0.0125%) as additive were equally effective to reduce <em>E. tenella</em> oocyst shed at day 6, 7, 8 and average total count post inoculation. Infected chickens fed diet fortified with GC, Hrp and their mixtures showed cecal lesion similar to those fed with infected-unfortified diet group at day 7 post inoculation. Highest intestinal length at 27 days post inoculation was observed in the uninfected-unfortified ration group and the shortest length was noticed in infected-unfortified ration group. In conclusion, broilers fed diet fortified with GC 0.75%, Hrp 0.75%, GC 0.38%+Hrp 0.38% mixture and amprolium 0.0125% showed better BWG at the end of the production phase than infected-unfortified ration group. Garden cress and amprolium lowered oocyst shed indicating better protection against <em>E. </em><em>tenella</em> infection.</p> Mengistu Urge, Kassa Shawle, Getachew Animut, Tesfaheywet Zeryehun, Meskerem Adamu Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/436 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Husbandry Practices, Farmers’ Perception and Constraints of Pig Farming in Bishoftu and Holeta Areas, Central Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/437 <p>The study was conducted to describe and compare the current pig production practices in Bishoftu and Holeta towns and their surroundings, central Ethiopia. The areas were selected since they are the most important pig production areas in the country. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 20 and 23 pig farmers from Holeta and Bishoftu, respectively. The parameters studied<br>in the survey included socio-economic characteristics, production and management, ownership, herd structure, purpose of keeping, feed resource, feeding and fattening practices, reproductive management, meat utilization and marketing, and pig production constraints. Results indicate that household characteristics of pig keepers did not differ significantly (P &gt; 0.05) between the two study<br>areas. Pig farmers keep adapted exotic pig breeds. Herd composition did not differ statistically (P &gt; 0.05) between the two study areas. Mean pig herd size per household was 5.72. The majority (58%) practice both pig breeding and fattening. The two study areas were similar (P &gt; 0.05) in the type of pig house. Pigs were permanently housed by 88.4% of the households. Major feed sources offered to<br>pigs in both study areas include household wastes, market wastes and crop residues. Reproductive managements did not differ significantly (P &gt; 0.05) between the two study areas. Similar results (P &gt; 0.05) were obtained for origin of animal stocks in the two study areas. Most (83.7 %) of the farmers acquired their foundation stock from local markets. The farmers did not slaughter pigs for home<br>consumption and pigs were kept as a source of income. Farmers in both study areas named high cost of feeds, followed by pig mortality due to diseases, marketing constraints and lack of capital as major constraints for pig production. Despite the existence of production constraints, most respondents had aspiration to continue rearing pigs and plan to expand pig farm. It can be concluded that an improvement of pig production in Central Ethiopia should consider an improvement in feeding practices, marketing system, prevention of diseases, and a reduction of inbreeding.</p> Efrem Gebrehawariat, Getachew Animut, Mengistu Urge, Yoseph Mekasha Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/437 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Prevalence and Species of Ticks on Cattle in Borecha District, Southern Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/438 <p>A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to identify and estimate the abundance of bovine tick species. The ticks were collected from different attachment sites on cattle kept under extensive management system. Among the 384 animals examined, 63 percent (n=242) were infested by one or more tick species. A total of 4246 adult ticks were collected and five tick species belonging to two genera, namely <em>Amblyomma</em> and <em>Rhipicephalus</em> were identified. The prevalence of tick infestation in animals with poor body condition (73.95%) was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher compared to animals with good body condition (52%). The prevalence of tick<br>infestation among the age groups was significant (P&lt;0.05) and higher in old than young and adult. <em>Boophilus</em> tick species infested all body regions of animals. <em>Amblyomma</em> species concentrated on the scrotum/udder regions whereas Rhipicephalus were restricted to the ear, neck, udder/scrotum, anogenital and tail of the animals. The prevalence and abundance of tick in the present study is high and can reduce animal productivity. Therefore, appropriate and strategic tick control program should be formulated and implemented and this should be based on the distribution pattern of the tick species.</p> Jelalu Kemal, Mathewos Israel, Sisay Alemu Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/438 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Prevalence and Characterization of Hydatid Cyst in Cattle at Halaba Kulitto Municipal Abattoir, South Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/439 <p>A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to July 2013 to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Halaba kulitto municipal abattoir. A total of 384 cattle organ were examined and the result revealed an overall hydatidosis prevalence of 24.21% (93/384). The distribution of hydatid cysts in different internal organ were 12.8% (49/384), 3.1% (12/384), 0%, 0.5% (2/384), 1.3% (5/384), 4.7% (18/384), 0.8% (3/384) and 1.0% (4/384), respectively in lungs, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung and liver, lung, liver and spleen and in lung and spleen. The lung was the most affected organ followed by the liver. Sex and age of the animal did not have statistically significant effect (P&gt;0.05). A total of 70 cysts were examined for viability and fertility test. Accordingly, 82.86% (58/70) and 53% (37/70) cysts were fertile and viable, respectively. The findings of the present study disclosed that hydatidosis was prevalent in cattle of the study area and responsible for high level of condemnation of different organs. Hence, an integrated control<br>approach involving strategic de-worming of the final hosts with strong surveillance system and good management practice of animals are essential for the reduction of the parasite prevalence.</p> Sisay Alemu; Fethu Lemma, Jelalu Kemal, Ashebr Abraha, Tahir Adem Copyright (c) 2017 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/439 Sun, 25 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400