East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas <p>The East African Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (EAJVAS) publish original scientific papers and technological information on aspects of veterinary and animal sciences to the users in Eastern Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers from anywhere else in the world. </p> en-US hueajvas@gmail.com (Editorial Team) abraha.ashebr@yahoo.com (Dr. Bruk Abraha (Editorial Manager)) Sun, 12 May 2024 15:18:39 -0400 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Seroprevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease and Its Associated Risk Factors in Backyard Chickens in Selected Districts of Illubabor Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/464 <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus and its risk factors in backyard chickens in selected districts of Illubabor Zone, western Ethiopia. A purposive sampling technique was applied for the selection of three districts and nine <em>kebelles</em> (the smallest administrative unit) of the study Zone, while simple random sampling was used for the collection of serum samples from individual chickens. A total of 384 serum samples were collected for the detection of antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus using ProFLOKĀ® PLUS indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The identification of risk factors was conducted using a questionnaire survey. The overall seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease was found to be 46.61%. The prevalence was higher in young (58.61%) than in adult (17.12%) chickens and the difference was significant (P&lt;0.05). Moreover, a higher but nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05) seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease was observed in Halu district (48.1%), followed by Algesachi (47.0%) and Didu (44.4%). The majority of respondents didn`t have any awareness about infectious bursal disease. The knowledge about infectious bursal disease was significantly associated (P &lt; 0.05) with marital status, location (districts), and education level of the respondents. The study revealed a very high seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus in backyard poultry production, which indicates a circulating virus in the area. In the study districts, a good management system coupled with vaccination programs should be practiced to reduce the incidence of infectious bursal disease.</p> Girma Degefa, Walkite Furgasa Copyright (c) 2022 Girma Degefa, Walkite Furgasa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/464 Wed, 28 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Epidemiological and Interventional Study of Camel Trypanosomosis in Selected Districts of Somali and Oromia Regional States, Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/465 <p>Camel trypanosomosis (surra) is one of the most important diseases which affects the health and production potential of camels in eastern Ethiopia. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors and vectors in Babile, Shinile and Fafan districts. In addition, parasite (chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis) and vector control (pour-on, insecticide-impregnated targets and traps) methods were implemented. Both serum and entomological samples were collected 4 times a year to estimate the seasonal prevalence of <em>T. evansi,</em> and assess the abundance and diversity of vectors, respectively. A total of 1790 blood samples were collected before intervention (358 per season). <em>T. </em><em>evansi</em> was detected in 5.1% and 8.73% of camels by using the buffy coat method (BCM) and Card Agglutination Trypanosomiasis Test (CATT)/<em>T. evansi</em>)<em>, </em>respectively. In this study, the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was significantly higher in Babile (12.6%) than Shinile (5%) district (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), in adults (10.4%) than in young (7.7%) camels (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), in poor (20.8%) than good (3.4%) body condition camels<em> P</em>&lt;0.05, and in wet (14.3%) than early wet (2.2%) season, (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). The biting fly with the highest apparent density was <em>Stomoxy</em><em>s</em> followed by <em>Tabanus</em>, <em>Chrysops</em>, and <em>Haematopota</em> species. Strong association was observed between the apparent density of biting flies caught and the incidence of <em>T. evansi</em> infection. Moreover, <em>T. evansi</em> infection was higher in anemic than non-anemic animals (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>). The serological prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was significantly lower (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>) after intervention than the pre-intervention periods (95% CI= 6.8-59.3%). During the post-intervention period, the prevalence of camel trypanosome infection was significantly (<em>P&lt;0.05</em>) reduced (95% CI=3.0-7.8%) in comparison to the control Fafan districts (95% CI=10.3-17.7%). The implementation of diverse intervention methods on the parasite and its vectors resulted in a decreased incidence of <em>T. evansi</em> infection. This interventional study might serve as a model for the control of surra in low-income settings with community participatory approach.</p> Sisay Alemu, Negesse Mekonnen, Natenael Dagim Eyasu Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/465 Wed, 28 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Microbial Load and Occurrence of Bacterial Pathogens in Ayib (Ethiopian Cottage Cheese) Marketed in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/466 <p><em>Ayib</em>, a traditional Ethiopian cottage cheese, is a popular dairy product with a significant role in the country's diet and culture. However, despite its high nutritional quality, it is susceptible to microbial spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the microbial quality and safety of <em>ayib</em> samples sourced from small-scale vendors in the open markets and a commercial dairy plant in Hawassa, Ethiopia. The microbial quality and safety of 50 <em>ayib</em> samples (250 g per sample) consisting of 25 samples from randomly selected small-scale vendors and 25 from retail outlets of a commercial dairy in Hawassa. The quality and safety of the <em>ayib</em> samples were assessed based on aerobic mesophilic bacterial count (AMBC), total coliform count (TCC), staphylococcal count (SC), yeast and mold count (YMC), and detection of <em>Salmonella</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> using standard plate count and phenotypic biochemical tests. The mean AMBC, TCC, SC, and YMC values of samples from the small-scale vendors in log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g were 8.26, 5.38, 4.96, and 6.88, respectively. The respective parameters for the <em>ayib</em> samples from the dairy plant were 7.55, 4.56, 3.91, and 5.42 in log<sub>10</sub> CFU/g. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria count in the <em>ayib</em> samples from both sources were dominated by <em>Staphylococcus</em>, <em>Bacillus</em>, and <em>Pseudomonas</em>. <em>Salmonella</em> was detected at higher frequencies (48%) in samples from small-scale vendors than in the dairy plant (28%). These findings indicated that <em>ayib</em> samples from both sources had a microbial load higher than the recommended limit set by international standards. The study highlighted the potential risks associated with <em>ayib</em> consumption, particularly from small-scale vendors. It emphasizes the need for improved food safety practices and regulations to ensure the safety and quality of <em>ayib</em> in the production and supply chain.</p> Asnaku Bekele, Abraham Mikru, Million Adane, Zufan Bedewi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://eajvas.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajvas/article/view/466 Wed, 28 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0500